The 1887 Dawes Act grants citizenship to Native-Americans who renounce their tribal affiliations - centuries old ancestral identities. The 1890 Indian Naturalization Act grants citizenship to Native-Americans in the Indian Territory. This Act allows Native-Americans to maintain dual citizenship by maintaining tribal citizenship.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 denies people of Chinese ancestry naturalized citizenship, and therefore the right to vote. States with large Chinese immigrant populations fear the power of a Chinese voting bloc and incite popular sentiment against naturalization.
The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organizations intensify their campaign of violence and intimidation against Black citizens. State laws, such as Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests and Grandfather Clauses radically suppress the Black vote.
The "Compromise of 1877" effectively ends Reconstruction. In a "backroom" deal after the contentious and close 1876 election, Republicans agree to pull federal troops out of the Sourth and stop enforcing the 15th Amendment.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Native-Americans are not citizens under the 14th Amendment and cannot vote. Mexican-Americans in the territories of Arizona and New Mexico are also not citizens and cannot vote.
Susan B. Anthony is arrested while attempting to vote in a presidential election in Rochester, NY. Sojourner Truth, a former black slave, unsuccessfully attempts to vote in the same election in Battle Creek, MI.
The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified, prohibiting denial or abridgment of a citizen's right to vote based on "race, color or previous condition of servitude." 700,000 African-Americans are immediately enfranchised in the Southern states, creating panic and fear among European-Americans.
The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified. Its Citizenship Clause grants national and state citizenship to "All persons born or naturalized in the States," including former slaves. The Dred Scott decision of 1857 is thereby nullified.
Reconstruction era acts are implemented throughout the former Confederacy. During Federal military rule and under Federal protection (1867-1877) hundreds of thousands of black freedmen and some poor white males are registered to vote.
1865: Civil War ends and Southern states enact restrictive and violent "Black Codes" in order to ensure that white domination continues. 1866: Susan B. Anthony and Candy Stanton form the American Equal Rights Association.
The Treaty of Guadalupe ends the Mexican-American War. The Republic of Mexico cedes 525,000 square miles of land to the U.S. Government. Mexicans living in the conquered territories are granted citizenship, but voting rights are obstructed by states' suppression tactics and violence.
The first Naturalization Law passes. It limits "citizenship" to "free white immigrants who have been in the country for a minimum of two years. Native Americans are not deemed "citizens" of the U.S. and cannot vote.
The Constitutional Convention is not able to decide on a national voting rights standard and leaves it up to the states to decide who can vote. Most states restrict voting rights to white-male-Protestant landowners.